I'm a transmission builder that usually lurks here but I've never made an account. Made one today because I saw this post hasn't been answered in over two months. This was caused by bad u joints on the driveshaft. It usually happens like yours did, although I've seen them break the whole bellhousing.
Anyway, I hope you've gotten this fixed by now, but if not all you gotta do is pop that transfer case off and take out 6 bolts and that broken adapter will come right off. Put a used or new one back on, reinstall the transfer case, and it's a done deal. Good luck
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